Why does it occur, when does it work? 

Allow me to share a puzzle. Public sector outsourcing (a.k.a. ‘contracting out’) has been increasing in recent decades. It is not the same as ‘privatisation’ because the government retains the role as a funder but it outsources the task to a private provider – which may be a corporation or non-government organisation.

I'll have what he's having

You know a guy like Timothy Ferriss. He is the work colleague who seems to glide by without doing that much yet always meets his targets and keeps the boss happy. He is the super-fit neighbour who spends his weekends skydiving and orienteering and diving with sharks and learning to play the bassoon.